Style Manuals

Style Manuals

APA -The American Psychological Association (APA) style

–The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the source of information in the reference list at the end of the paper.


The journal title and the volume number are in italics. Issue numbers are not

required if the journal is continuously paged. If paged individually, the issue number

is required and is in regular type in parentheses adjacent to the volume number


General Form

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.


General Format - Databases

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxx

Article Retrieved from an Online Database

NOTE: Use the article’s DOI (Digital Object Identifier), the unique code given by the publisher to a specific article.

Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British Journal of Management, 18, 138-153. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00507.x

NOTE: Use the journal’s home page URL (or web address) if there is no DOI.This may require a web search to locate the journal’s home page. There is no period at the end of web address. Break a long URL before the punctuation.


General Form

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address

The Chicago Manual of Style

  • The Chicago Manual of Style(abbreviated in writing asCMSorCMOS,or verbally asChicago) is astyle guideforAmerican Englishpublished since 1906 by theUniversity of Chicago Press. Its sixteen editions have prescribed writing andcitationstyles widely used in publishing. It is "one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States."The CMS deals with aspects of editorial practice, from American English grammar and usage to document preparation.
  • first published in 1906 under the titleManual of Style
  • In 1982, with the publication of the 13th edition, it was officially retitledThe Chicago Manual of Style
  • In August 2010, the 16th edition was published simultaneously in the hardcover and online editions for the first time in theManual's history
  • It remains the basis for theStyle Guide of theAmerican Anthropological Associationand theStyle Sheetfor theOrganization of American Historians.

History of editions

  • 1st ed., 1906
  • 2nd ed., 1910
  • 3rd ed., 1911
  • 4th ed., 1914
  • 5th ed., 1917
  • 6th ed., 1919
  • 7th ed., 1920
  • 8th ed., 1925
  • 9th ed., 1927
  • 10th ed., 1937
  • 11th ed., 1949
  • 12th ed., 1969
  • 13th ed., 1982
  • 14th ed., 1993
  • 15th ed., 2003
  • 16th ed., 2010

The Chicago Manual of Stylepresents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. It accommodates a variety of sources, including esoteric ones less appropriate to the author-date system.

The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Click on the tabs below to see some common examples of materials cited in each style, including examples of common electronic sources

The MLA Style Manual

  • First published by theModern Language Association of Americain 1985
  • TheMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing(2008) is the third edition ofThe MLA Style Manual
  • It is an academic style guide widely used in the United States, Canada, and other countries, providing guidelines for writing and documentation of research in the humanities, especially in English studies; the study of other modern languages and literatures, including comparative literature; literary criticism; media studies; cultural studies; and related disciplines.
  • TheMLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd ed. (2008), by the Modern Language Association of America (based on the work of Joseph Gibaldi with co-author Walter S. Achtert.

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